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Sevastopol History

Sevastopol History Sevastopol HistoryHeavy and long struggle of Russia for an output to the Black Sea successfully was finished; as a result of war with Turkey 1768-1774 years. Was signing Kuchuk - Kainardzhiysky treaty, on which Crimean khanate was announced independent from Turkey and passed under protection Russia. Commander by Russian army in Crimea A. V. Suvorov has appreciated war-strategic importance of perfect bays, on which coast in five years the construction of city and port will begin. In 1778 it has placed at Ahtiar bay forces. The commander has stated belief, what exactly here is necessary to create base of military fleet, which will ensure safety Southern sea boundaries of Russia. " To Similar harbour ", wrote A. V. Suvorov, " not only at local peninsula, but also on all the black sea other will not be, where the fleet is kept also employees on it better more convenient and quieter are placed could". By the manifest from April 8, 1783, Crimea, Taman and right-bank of Kuban were attached to Russia. With liquidation of Crimean khanate, Turkey has lost base of the aggression in Northern Black Sea coast. The victory of Russia in war has created objective the preconditions for amplification struggle against turkish dominion of the peoples of Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia and other countries.

Fregates "Brave" and "Cautious" were the first Russian ships which have stayed on wintering in Ahtiar harbours per 1782/83. In the spring 1783 to these coast the whole squadron under commander of the vice-admiral F. A. Klokachev, one of heroes has come Chesma battle. The ships have thrown of an anchor in a bay later named as Southern. Here they have appeared, reliably protected, from gales and storm. The Russian seamen have seen on a coast covered of shortish wood and bush, small hamlet, sticking to breakage. A name of hamlet - Ak-Yar (Aht-Yar) to underlie in a basis of the name of a bay, and then and city, constructed on its coast. Seamen, fort's peasants from different Russian provinces, civilian workmans - inhabitants, of next, Balaclava - become the first builders of the future base of black Sea fleet. June 3 (June 14 on new style) 1783 on Western coast of a Southern bay were incorporated of the first stone construction of city: the house for new commander of Black Sea Navy F. F. Mekenzy, chapel, smithy and wooden quay, that, which have named later as Grafskaya. This date Also has become birthday of Sevastopol. The construction was supervised by the chief of a staff of a squadron a flag - captain D. N. Seniavin, subsequently admiral, outstanding naval commander. By the decree from February 10, 1784. Ahtiar, city - fortress at the Black sea, have named by Sevastopol. The high sense of this name to it should be justified. And it has justified it. By were born as naval base, Sevastopol for ever has connected to fate of Black Sea fleet. From its harbours there left in campaigns the military ships, here they came back with a victory. During russian-turkish war 1787-1791 years a squadron under commanding F. F. Ushakov crashed Superior forces of turkish fleet at an island Fidonici, has broken of the opponent in Kerch strait, at Tendeovskaya plate, and then at cape Kalicaria. The contemporaries marked, that military art sailor of the Black Sea Fleet, not connected with dogmas of the past, surpassed battle skill of seamen of other fleet. The admiral F. F. Ushakov, in 1790 headed Black Sea fleet, fairly named " naval Suvorov ": he did not know defeats. " Rendering due outstanding merits naval commander and to the remarkable traditions, incorporated by him. These awards the military seamen, especially exceled in sea received fights and battles. The name of the glorified admiral is carried with one of the central areas of Sevastopol. Ushakov's beam named the picturesque district behind city refers to as, where in XVIII century in the order F. F. Ushakov the large garden was broken, the place for national strolls is allocated. In 1804 the Russian government officially has announced Sevastopol main military by port by the Black sea. Since 1805 main commander of black Sea fleet and its ports was nominated simultaneously as governor cities of Sevastopol and Nikolaev. In campaigns and buttles mature the young Russian military fleet, its feats was fated to remain in centuries....

Sevastopol History It referred to as "St. Pavel", 84-gun ship constructed in Nikolaev by the engineers Afanasiev and Sokolov in 1794. The ship, to which was fated to enter a history. In battle at an Fidonisi island (russian-turkish war 1787-1791 years) on it flagstaff hoisting a flag famous naval commander F. F. Ushakov. In the morning on July 3, 1788 the squadron of black Sea fleet under command of the rear-admiral M. I. Voinovich has met fleet hasan-plough, totalling 17 linear ships, 8 frigates and 20 of fine courts. For two linear ships, 10 frigates and two tens auxiliary courts of Russian squadron the turkish fleet represented menacing force. Voinovich has become puzzled at first. But turcish resistance sufficed only so long as kept flagship. By it also has decided to take advantage the foreman Ushakov, command of avance guard of a squadron, being on " St. Pavel", Turkich went two wake order of columns. First was lowered on our avance guard, trying it to attack. To break attack hasan-plough, Ushakov has ordered to the ships to add of sails and, come to forward to bypass a head of turkish fleet from other board to put turkish under two fires. But turkish flagship has solved a plan Russian and has hurried also to increase a course, why unfriendly column was stretched. Thus, the initial buttle plan, planned hasan-plough, was failed. The opponents were pulled together on a distance of a gun shot. Was fastened powerful artillery ia?ano?aeea. Falling asleep two head vessels by a hailstones of nucleuses, Ooaeia and following for it o?aaaou "Borislav" and "Strela" persistently aspired to separate them from columns. By not sustaining neat fire Russian and being afraid to be cut off from the basic forces, the turkish head ships turn away and send from buttle. Then Ushakov has brought down whole fire on flagship the ship hasan-plough. Three hours proceeded buttle. By a neat shot gunners "St. Pavel" have brought down a mast turkish flagship, and it has left a battle line. To its example have followed of other court. The strongly damaged turkish fleet has receded to the coast. With a victory gained mainly and the account of resolute actions of avance guard Ushakov, the squadron Voinovich has come back in Sevastopol. Soon commander by a squadron was nominated Ushakov. But on this battle the history of the heroic ship was not finished. It had not less heroical continuation... " Hurrah! To Russian fleet! I now speak myself: what for there was noI with Korfu though midshipman ?" - has exclaimed Suvorov, when has learned about a capture Korfu by Russian seamen. The fortress on an island Korfu was considered unapproachable. It strengthened during many years Venetian and French. The garrison of an island reached 3000 persons with a semi-annual stock of the foodstuffs. The defence counsels had 650 instruments. From the sea the fortress was covered with islands Aeai and Lisaretto with the artillery batteries, established on them. The brilliant operation on a capture Korfu was by display of exclusive military talent outstanding Russian Naval commander F. F. Ushakov. The enemy of the sample circuits, he amazed with originality and novelty of the tactical receptions in buttle, always conditions, answering the requirements, and consequently be accompanied by constant success. There was a war between France and coalition of the European states, into which Russia Connected to a russian-turkish squadron under the guise the vice-admiral Ushakov entered also has arrived to an island Korfu on November 9, 1798 and has begun its blockade. By January 1, 1799 at Korfu the powerful forces consisting of 12 linear ships, 11 frigates, two corvettes and several auxiliary courts have concentrated. From Albanian plough and deputy of the sultan ali-plough Yaninskiy, Ushakov has achieved sending the forces by number 4250 persons. The truth, large part them has refused to participate in storm. But nevertheless Ushakov has decided by all means to attack Korfu. A key to a fortress was the island Vido.
Sevastopol History

The attack Vido was begun in the morning on February 18, Ushakov held a flag by the linear ship "St. Pavel". On a signal flagmanship of the ship the russian-turkish fleet has approached to an island on case-shot and has opened powerful fire on coastal batteries and alive force of the opponent. "St. Pavel" shot on itself large-calibre battery and together with frigate "Nikolay" in short term has destroyed it. Soon all five French batteries were "are exterminated and are inverted in ashes". On "St. Pavel" hoisting a signal: "to begin decent landing". The auxiliary courts and boats landed more than 2000 persons. In decent structure are 1400 Russian grenadiers and seamen. By throwing batteries and other strenghtenings, the French ran in depth of island. "Brave ours forces, - informed the buttle ambassador Ushakov, - instantly have rushed in all places of an island, and enemy everywhere was broken and is defeated". By two o'clock on an island Vido the Russian flags fluttered. The French linear ship "Leander" and frigate "Brune" tried to support the defence counsels of an island. But from fire of Russian courts the French ships have received strong damages and were compelled to be covered under protection of a fortress. Maintained by fire of ship artillery second decent in 900 persons by storm has taken two basic forts on an island Korfu. The French send in an internal part of a fortress. By evening Vido is final fall, and it has decided lot of Korfu. Commandant of an island divisional general Shabo on February 19 has sent Ushakovo of three officers with the offer to accept their delivery and to begin negotiation. " Mister Admiral! We think, that is useless to endow life many brave Russian soldiers, Turkish and French for mastering Korfu. Owing to this we offer you armistice, on how many of time you judge, for the decision of conditions about delivery these fortresses..." On February 20, 1799 the general Shabo on "St. Pavel" has signed unconditional surrender conditions. In captivity 2931 persons, including 4 generals have surrendered. Are seized the linear ship and frigate, and also 15 other courts. 600 instruments and about 5 thousands guns are taken. The local inhabitants of an island Korfu, released by Ushakov from French dominiona, have presented to Russian naval commander the gold sword decorated with brilliants. A banner, the flag and keys of a main fortress, and also flags of the French ships Ushakov has sent in St. Petersburg.

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